3???. How about buying a cup of coffee for someone you?ll never meet? The idea, begun in Naples, Italy, and called “Suspended Coffee” — i.e., a customer pays for a coffee and “banks” it for someone __________ (fortunate) — has become an international internet sensation (轰动) with coffee shops in Europe and North America participating in the movement. The Facebook page alone has more than 28,000 “likes.” The tradition of “suspended coffee” is a long-standing tradition in Italy that increased in popularity after the Second World War. Recently the practice was starting to take hold in other European countries hit hard economically.
4??. Then Ms. Yates started to speak: “I can?t tell you how pleased I am to be here. I haven?t seen many of you since your graduation, but I ___________ (follow) your careers and enjoyed your victories as well as cried for your tragedies. I have a large collection of newspaper photographs of my students.
5??.The cameras (22) ___________ (spot) some animals that have never been recorded before in the area and others, like chimp(黑猩猩), which are rarely seen. Stuart Nixon, the Africa Field Programme Co-ordinator at Chester Zoo, said confirmation of the locations of chimps was an important discovery.
6???. But when I called her to say I had decided to spend the night at Sara?s dorm, my mom
informed me that she wanted me home at one a.m. I was wild with anger! I ___________ (make) my own decisions how late a young man should stay out for several months. However much I tried to reason with my mother, she insisted things are different when I am home, and that they were the ones paying my bills.
7??. When your mood is dark, how do you know whether you are depressed or just sad? Think about how long the feelings _________ (last).
8??. The year was 1932. Amelia Earhart was flying alone from North America to England in a small single-engined airplane. At midnight, several hours after she had left Newfoundland, she ran into bad weather. To make things worse, her altimeter (高度表) failed and she didn?t know how high she _________ (fly).
9??. Somehow it seems _________ (restart) itself again before it made its way along the work surface. Then it pushed a cooking pot out of the way and basically that was the end of it.
10??. By ten o?clock, things were out of control. Alex was wondering why the fish in the jar refused his bread and butter. Mike was trying to show off his talent by decorating the kitchen wall with his colour pencils. Randy, thankfully, appeared _________ (draw) a picture quietly in the family room, but closer examination showed that he was eating apple jam straight from the bottle with his hands.
Brad realized that the talk show was over and reading would be impossible.
11?. _________ variety of activities was also regarded as a way of maintaining or increasing motivation and interest. Several years ago we had the first timetable that operated throughout the course of English learning, but we soon found that both the students and the teachers lost interest by about half-way through the ten weeks.
12???. The emotional and physical stress, however, which occurs due to hard working hours is a prime reason for a lot of the career dissatisfaction. It is sometimes required that we work overtime and that we change shifts four or five times a month. That disturbs our personal lives and disrupts our sleeping and eating habits, isolating us from everything _________ job-related friends and activities.
13??. When you win, the good way is to be a polite and generous winner. Sportsmanship means admitting victories _______ putting your opponents to shame and letting victories speak for themselves, that is, being quietly proud of success.
14??. Over the years his simple burger café has been expanded ___________ a 24-hour roadside empire, with a 100-seat restaurant, a petrol station, a mini shopping market, a car part for mobile and all-night self-help laundry.
15???. However, the quantity of serious writing which I produced all ___________ my childhood would not add up tohalf a dozen pages.
16??. Both of these criticisms are legitimate, but they beg the question of why so many Chinese still want to learn English. English, _________ recognize, is the lingua franca of the modern world. It is the language of business and has become the language of international relations and culture.
17?. If such an app arrives, try to do at least one new thing every week. It?s not too difficult to push _________ to do new things.
18???. Accidents happen almost everywhere every day. Some accidents are not serious and some really are. We read about such accidents nearly every day in the newspapers. And people usually think that accidents take place only on the roads or highways until they _________come across accidents in their homes or even at work places.
19?. When I first hiked in the silent Ponderosa pines of the Black Hills, I was surprised at how quiet the world became. Nowadays, when I walk in the woods, I notice other things. I hear songs of unseen birds and catch glimpses of wildflower color, all of (25) _________ make great subjects for me to put in front of a camera.
20???. Every October, hundreds of thousands head to the New River Gorge Bridge, the third tallest
in the U.S. The majority of the people are spectators, __________the event, Bridge Day, sees the world's largest gathering of BASE jumpers. These athletes jump off heights, timing the release of their parachute(降落伞) for both safety and terminal excitement.
21??. If an animal who has not learnt swimming could escape by swimming, why not you? Because you believe you will drown (26)________ the animal doesn?t. These three cases show the power of our beliefs. There is no other, more powerful force in human behavior than belief. Your beliefs have the power to create and to destroy.
22??. Those who become addicted todrug use sometimes rob or break into houses or stores to steal money to pay for the drugs. It has serious effects on individuals physically and mentally, _________ the economic losses caused by drug abuse are great. Drug use has caused great concern in the United States. The federal government has worked hard to stop the growing of drug plants in other countries.
23??. Too much packaging is doing damage to the environment. If such packaging is burnt, it gives off greenhouse gases which go on to cause the greenhouse effect. Recycling helps, (26)______ the process itself uses energy. The solution is not to produce such items in the first place. Food waste is a serious problem, too. Too many supermarkets encourage customers to buy more than they need. However, a few of them are coming round tothe idea that this cannot continue, encouraging customers to reuse their plastic bags, for example.
④补语：动名词不能做宾语补足语；分词doing作补足语表示正在进行，不定式to do 作补语表示将要发生（部分感官动词接to do做宾补表动作全过程）。
⑤定语：分词doing作定语表示正在进行，动名词doing作定语表示所修饰事物的功能和用途；过去分词done作定语表示被动或完成（及物动词的done表示被动或完成，不及物动词的done只表示完成）；不定式to do 作定语表示具体性或将要发生。
⑥状语：动名词不作状语，分词having (been) done 只能作状语，分词being done一般不作状语；doing作状语表示与谓语动词动作几乎同时发生，having (been) done表示明显先于谓语动词的动作，done表示被动或完成（一般和谓语动作先后顺序不明显，表示经常习惯性普遍性的被动，有时也可以和having been done互换）；动词不定式to do作状语表示目的，（出乎意料的）结果或原因（一般跟在部分情感或心理活动的形容词后）。
原则一：两个句子必须要用连词连接，如果没有连词连接，则需要用非谓语动词。 原则二：及物动词有宾语时用-ing形式，无宾语时用-ed形式。 原则三：being done 表示“正在被”，一般不作状语，只作定语。
非谓语动词的完成时形式to have done或having done强调该动作发生在句子谓语动词之前。
例题1:. （2014年长宁区一模）Besides we can?t deny that some bad guys mask themselves very well so that they can get many nice people (30) _________ (trap). 【答案】trapped
例题2:（2014年闵行区一模）.Perhaps the best way (35) _________ (learn) how to behave in the working world is to identify a worker you admire and observe his behavior. 【答案】to learn
【解析】根据way的用法：the way to do sth，所以需用不定式形式做定语。在英语中，有些表示抽象概念的名词后面接不定式做定语，对其进行解释说明，类似用法的词有：ability, ambition, anxiety, attempt, campaign, chance, courage, decision, determination等。
例题3:.（2014年普陀区一模）They were fond of comparison shopping and would routinely go from store to store, (39) _________ (check) prices before making a new purchase. 【答案】checking
例题4:. （2014年虹口区一模）It is essential for you to know why you are speaking and (25) _________ you wish to accomplish by your speech. 【答案】what
例题5:. （2014年虹口区一模）It was they (33) _________ first tried to persuade Hilton to remain open all night. 【答案】that
1??. A land free from destruction, plus wealth, natural resources, and labor supply --- all these were important factors in helping England to become the center for the Industrial Revolution, but they were not enough. Something else ___________ (need) to start the industrial process.
2?. Most of the people who developed the machines of the Industrial Revolution were inventors, not ___________ (train) scientists.
3?. However, watercolors remained my first choice, and I think I did my best work there, ___________ (display) my paintings at a number of art shows.
4?. In the last decade, research ___________ (show) that resistance exercise can help numerous disease states, including depression.
5?. In recent years, emphasis has shifted to a type of resistance training which builds muscles used in day-to-day tasks, helping avoid injury or re-injury ___________ (call) functional strength