初中定语从句的用法

一、定语从句的概念 初中定语从句的用法

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

先行词 定 语 从 句

昨天我在校门口看见的那个人是我的英语老师。

二、定语从句的关系词

引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。

① I am waiting for the boy who /that is wearing a red coat. (关系代词作主语) 先行词 关系代词

我正在等穿着红色外套的那个男孩。

② The dictionary that / which my sister gave me last Sunday is very expensive.

先行词 关系代词 (关系代词作宾语)

我姐姐上周星期天给我的那本字典很贵。

③ The woman whose name is Linda Brown is his mother. (关系代词作定语) 先行词 关系代词

那个是他的母亲,名叫琳达?布朗。

④ That is the house where my father used to live. (关系代词作状语)

先行词 关系副词

那是我父亲曾经居住过的房子。

三、关系代词的用法

1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作

宾语时可省略。例如:

① Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle. 玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)

② The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue. 我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。 (that作宾语)

2. which用于指物,在句中作主语或宾语,作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

① The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.

位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)

② The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful.

我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)

3. who, whom都用于指人,who用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom,也可省略。例如:

① The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.

经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语)

② Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁? (作宾语)

小结:that—既可指人,也可指物,作主语,不能省略;作宾语,可以省略。

which—指物,作主语,不能省略;作宾语,可以省略。

who—指人,作主语,不能省略;作宾语(常用whom),可以省略。 注:当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词形式由先行词定。

注意——

(1) 当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+ which/whom”结构。例如:

① 这是我们去年居住的房子。

请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

(2) 含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:

这就是你要找的那个人。

(3) that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:

The city that she lives in is very far away. 她居住的城市非常远。

(4) 关系词只能用that而不用which的情况:

a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:

He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。 b. 被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:

Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

c. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:

This is the same bike that I lost. 这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that,而不用which。例如:

I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room. 我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

e. 以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that。例如: Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

f. 主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which。例如: There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

(5) 关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

a. 先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that。例如:

What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么? b. 关系代词前有介词时,一般用which,而不用that.例如:

This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。

c. 引导非限制性定语从句,用which, 而不用that。例如:

Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

(5)关系词只用who不用that 的情况

a. 先行词为one,ones(代人)或anyone时。

The girl is the one who gave me much help.这就是那个给我很多帮助的女孩。

b.先行词为those 或those + n复数时。

Those who work hard will pass the exam. 那些努力学习的人将会通过考试。

c.在there be 句型中。

There is a policeman who wants to see you. 这有一个警察想要见你。

d.在一个长句中包含两个定语从句,其中一个分句已经用了that,另外一个要用who。 The student who was hurt in the accident yesterday who is a friend of my was taken to No. One Hostipal.

五、关系副词的用法

(1) when指时间,其先行词表示时间,在句中作时间状语。例如: This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间。

(2) where指地点,其先行词表示地点,在句中作地点状语。例如: This is the factory where he works. 这是他工作的工厂。

(3) why 指原因,其先行词是原因,起原因状语作用,先行词必须是reason。例如:

Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school.

没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。

六. 关系副词转化为介词+ which

关系副词when和where均可以转化为介词 (in, on, at 等)+which。介词的选择要求和先行词搭配。而关系副词why转化为for which。

This was the time when he arrived. = This was the time at which he arrived. This is the factory where he works. = This is the factory in which he works. Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school.

=Nobody knows the reason for which he is often late for school.



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